Science & Medicine
Difficulties with arithmetic; may be the result of damage to the angular gyrus in the hemisphere dominant for speech and language.
According to Love and Webb (1992) the most predominant injury type is acceleration-deceleration trauma, which causes discrete lesions which affect only certain areas of the brain, occurs when the head is accelerated and then stopped suddenly, as in a car accident, and causes discrete, focal lesions to two areas of the brain, The prefrontal areas and the anterior portion of the temporal lobes. The brain will suffer contusions at the point of direct impact and at the site directly opposite the point of impact due to the oscillation of the brain within the skull.
It should be noted that brain injuries may occur as a result of acceleration-deceleration trauma unaccompanied by impact.
A change in the environment (such as a change in the background color of the tree trunk that birds roost on) will likely lead to a local adaptation. Any widespread population is likely to experience different environmental conditions in different parts of its range. As a consequence it will soon consist of a number of sub-populations that differ slightly, or even considerably. Natural selection, the cornerstone of evolutionary theory, provides the mechanism for adaptive change.
Alexander Ivanovich Oparin (1894-1980) was a Soviet biochemist who established the Metabolism First hypothesis to explain the origin of life, thus strengthening the primary role of cells as small drops of coacervates (evolutionary precursors of the first prokaryote cells). Dr Oparin did not refer to RNA or DNA molecules since at that time it was not clear just how important the role of these molecules was in living organisms. However he did form a solid base for the idea of self-replication as a collective property of molecular compounds.
An algorithm is a finite sequence of instructions used for calculations in mathematics, with practical applications in many other fields. In a computer system, an algorithm is an instance of logic written in software to perform a list of well-defined instructions for completing a task.
Part of the telencephalon, located in the temporal lobe. It is involved in memory, emotion, and fear, essentially acting as the brain's warning center. The fight-or-flight response originates with the amygdala. The amygdala is just beneath the surface of the front, medial part of the temporal lobe where it causes the bulge on the surface called the uncus. This is a component of the limbic system.
Anesthesia is a pharmacologically induced and reversible state of amnesia, analgesia, loss of responsiveness, loss of skeletal muscle reflexes and decreased stress response. The condition blocks sensation (including pain), allowing surgery on patients. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr., coined the term in 1846.
Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes, with either an extra or missing chromosome. It is a common cause of genetic disorders. Aneuploidy occurs during cell division when the chromosomes do not separate properly between the two cells. Chromosome abnormalities in humans are estimated to occur in 1 of 160 live births, the most common being extra chromosomes 13, 18, and 21. Some cancer cells also have abnormal numbers of chromosomes. Different species have different numbers of normal chromosomes and thus the term aneuploidy can refer to a difference in the chromosome number specific to that species.
Associative learning is the process by which an element is learned through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. It is also referred to as classical conditioning.
|autonomic nervous system||
Part of the peripheral nervous system that supplies neural connection to glands and smooth muscles of internal organs; made of two divisions (sympathetic and parasympathetic) and sometimes is considered to have a third division called the enteric system.
Extension from the cell that carries nerve impulses from the cell body to other neurons.
Group of structures which coordinate movement; located in the forebrain (telencephalon).
Bioinformatics is the is the name given to those mathematical and computationally intensive techniques used to suport research into biological processes. More formally, it is the application of computer science and information technology (IT) to the field of molecular biology. Paulien Hogeweg coined the term for the study of informatic processes in biotic systems (1979). The primary use of bioinformatics since the 1980s has been in genomics and genetics, particularly in those areas of genomics involving large-scale DNA sequencing.
Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. (United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity)
Bistability describes an object that can rest in either of two states prior to, or following, transition from one state to another. It is fundamental to understanding cellular functioning, decision-making processes in cell cycle progression, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis. The concept is not unique to biology. In physics and electrical engineering, bistability describes the functioning of a toggle switch, a hinged switch that can assume either one of two positions — on or off.